From cooking to the art of cooking
In order to assess the highs and lows, the rise or decline of a trade or a craft properly, it is necessary to deal with its history. Only then is it possible to be able to gain an overview and logically draw conclusions.
We ate at all times, also "cooked", initially only in the most primitive of all kinds, only as a contribution to the satisfaction of human needs. Boil or to fry meat led to the change of eating habits.
Even in the oldest biblical traditions is the talk of feasts, in which a certain luxury was driven already. Also, the consumption of alcohol played a role. Noah's evidence for this is, of which it is said that he had drunk one day more than he could tolerate.
The country of birth of the culinary arts, Asia, the mother of ancient cultures, sciences, virtues and vices. Developed here quite early guild of gourmets. Of the Asian countries from the culinary arts to spread over Greece Sicily and Italy. With the conquest of Italy by Rome Arts, Sciences, and with them the art of cooking took a general upswing. Greek philosophers, poets, musicians and chefs also impressed with the cultural life of Rome, which became the center of the world at that time. Immense wealth gathered there. Is it any wonder that the Luxury grew and eventually took on dimensions that had to lead to waste? It is reported about the Roman gourmet Apicius Marcus Gavius ??that he had spent a fortune on great feast. He was a contemporary of Emperor Augustus and Tiberius, whose reigns is called the golden age of Rome. His last big board cost 49 million sesterces. After supper he drank a cup of poison, because he feared that his assets would not be sufficient to henceforth also indulge in the expensive luxuries.
Until the 4th Century AD, we are told of similar gastronomic excesses. At this time the Germans loved to look decent business out of the war, only the hunt as a free man.
They did it early to cook meat. At one point the "Edda" it says "... that veal is in stock ...". Wild enjoyed great popularity in the Middle Ages. During Roman times, the Germans used to the eating and drinking culture of the legionaries and officers, instead of their Mets they drank wine. Were it but the Romans had adopted the wine in the Mosel, Saar, Rhine and Main. The Frankish king Charlemagne appreciated the wine, and as a special mark of his favor, he gave the abbey of Fulda 777 8 vineyards on the Franconian Saale. A sign that the descendants of the Germans had a fine tongue for wine and food. But it was only in the 16th Century in Germany next to the beer and wine is a popular drink and very popular because of its effect.
Just the monks that we owe the tradition of many old recipes. Our chef's jacket dates from that time - a cut cowl with initially ten, then twelve buttons. They loved the good and Dignified and offered the traveler and accommodation. As professional chefs, you can not call, but rather recognize their activity the gastronomic area. Their care of the culinary arts had more scientific character. They invented the "fast food", which in many cases not made fasting a privation, but a pleasure. Delayed one hour of meal, to then add with greater craving the food.
One of the oldest collections of German "Küchenrecepte" is included in the Würzburg parchment manuscripts, which are preserved in the University Library of Munich, Germany. Dates from the 14th century and begins with the sentence "Dis book tells of good food that maketh the unverrihtigen [foolish] cooks meadow ". It's been a cookbook for people Gaumenfeuden the knight and records the beginnings of the culinary arts of our ancestors on because "dis book tells of good food" and is a "good gauge of good food." This Medieval-and late medieval recipe traditions can already recognize understanding of dietary and medical and therapeutic problems.
After the cultivation was developed by Karl the Great to a barter economy, the craftsmen working in the cities mostly catering to. The result was that the State Ordinance of 1482 laid down that they could get a reward in hard cash. Forbidden it, the craftsmen no more than two beers, two wine and lunch was to grant no more than six courses. The introduction of the coin system was the first step towards monetary economy, then the patricians could be big, powerful and rich. The extensive trade relations of the merchants had the consequence that they worked lavishly with exotic spices and goods. Replaced money as payment to an ever greater extent the remuneration in kind, for example, what led to the still valid right of hospitality.
Many branches of the Hanseatic trade, especially in Germany and northern Europe, led to a refinement of the food culture by spreading ethnic cuisines. Even the booming trade with Italy, Greece and the Middle East, coffee, fruits, spices, glass, paper, cloth, silk, etc. brought to Central and Northern Europe, led to a flowering of the art of cooking.
Until the late Middle Ages the peacock feathers was in the first rank as a treat. Many of the animals are hardly known to us or are under protection, such as eagles, Trappe, herons, peacock, pelican, sea pig, crane, bear, hedgehog, swallow, swan, ostrich, Star and Wren. In the "Freßwissenschaft" by Michel de Montaigne, however, was only the Swan of importance, whereas turkey and guinea fowl maintain even today their place in the kitchen. With astonishment we read in old cookbooks that you then stuffed deer stomachs, gonads of deer , beaver tails, goat brain, udder and ate dumplings made of goose stomachs. Rumpolt Marx referred to an unborn fawn on a skewer as a treat for his master, adding that many a simple peasant it would not try it.
Sauces gained their popularity until the late Middle Ages and were intended as a counterweight to the gustatory mainly on the spit roasted meat. Juicy roast on a spit or rust could achieve only experienced chefs who dominated these types of cooking. Our German sauce goes back to the Latin word "salsa" = salted broth and refers to a liquid to creamy-bound and refined with all kinds of aromatic herbs addition.
At the feasts, the panels were richly decorated. To a table covered far beyond the borders falling tablecloth, it was the middle of the salt cellar or salt ship, round about lay the loaves. Was still eaten with the fingers. The fork, although it was known, was used to carve more.
In the Middle Ages, the French, the Germans, as well as the luxury of the Roman and Greek Table and cooking had no idea. During this time, therefore, also no significant progress recorded. The plague years in the 14th Century prevented the development of the hospitality and hotel industry; also hinder the effects of the Thirty Years' War, the over 50% of the population fell victim.
How did the art of cooking in Germany, unlike France, only in 17 and 18 Century their initial progress. In Hamburg, Hanover, Berlin, Leipzig and Nuremberg various cookbooks, although failed to match the glory of the existing French works were published, but they lay witness to the fact that even German chefs were creatively active. The professional chef certainly not be moved treasured knowledge from such writings, but in teaching oral and practical in the kitchen of his master.
With the expansion of trade routes, where every two or three miles an inn was built, the development of our industry got under way. Although the travelers had to agonize over horse-drawn carriages on bumpy trails through the country, but they were, as I said, in many places accommodations available.
The beginnings of the profession of chefs
A strange story was told in Mar 16 Century to the cooks. It was believed that the chefs do not eat much, but nevertheless would not look skinny. They wondered if they lived by the smell of food? The chefs, "which are always in front of the fire and beverage, and eat little offt" The fumes of the dishes that are imbibed with the air would not promote the appetite, but would bring more of a numbing An old proverb says..:
"Who eats pies all day - soon no further likes to eat."
So it is now time with the chefs: If you set before them something they have not even done "for an example, a piece of salmon, they will access briskly and eat without disgust." It was them subtly to eat the own products.
One of the first Hanoverian new residents from 1593 from Misburrg was a chef who ran a "Freihofstraße" there. Previously, he was head cook of Duke Eric of Brunswick-Lüneburg and its successor Duke Heinrich Julius. It is here the question of the "Master Francis de Rontzier", who came to North Germany in the wake of Princess Dorothea of ??Lorraine, who married Duke Erich in 1576th He probably came from Nancy and was probably the princely court in Lorraine as a cook been busy. since that time he lived in Misburg, Brunswick and Hanover, wrote a book and led forester services from the Misburger office. gratitude for faithful service to him his employer gave the 30-acre "Freihofstraße" in Misburg plus related forester services. The taxes of three full-Meier courts flowed to him.
As mews Braunschweigischer mouth chef, he wrote the book "Art Book of mancherley food / Boiled / Fried / of deer / Vogelen / Wildtprat / or other damage Whose / so make ready to Princely / and other banquets gehörich" for his bread Mr. Duke Heinrich Julius (1564 - 1617) ., it is possible that the "newable and well experienced master Rontzier" dictated on his "Freihofstraße" Misburg in the book "allerhandt furnehme außbündige and pieces." The description of his recipes are clear and concise and give a typical medieval German kitchen again. Ambition for the chef in the 16th Century belonged to offer basic instructions for recipes with more or less large variations. Its variations are always preceded by an "item" (also). Largely in his recipes he adapts to his new home.
Chefs whose names since 16 Century Hanoverian head control descriptions are called parish registers, etc., were mostly at the court, employed by rulers, generals, counts, barons, and princes Hofräten. Only a few were self-employed and led an inn, tavern, slaughterhouse or brewery. The most ducal and later royal court employed to Hanover chefs were privileged and received a good service to the board. So it was not peculiar that several generations of a cooking dynasty were employed at Welfenhof.
Towards the end of the Thirty Years' War drew the Guelphs from Celle to Hanover, and reigned from the line of the country. From then on, the main city of Hanover and Rezidenzstadt. From this time we are still preserved ancient tomes that tell what men and servants as ate in the Whitsun week of the year 1647. In this directory for the "Hanoverian court of Duke Johann Friedrich of Calenberg" the dishes are named after the importance of the panel orders. According to the "Princely Daffell" followed by a "side table", the "junkers Daffell," the "Officirer table" a table for "Altfrauwe and maids," the "table pages", "A table pfaltzgräfficher stable masters and lords", as well as a table for "hunters, blacksmiths, and young squire stable camera Creates servant".
By the Peace of Westphalia on 24 October 1648 was to be another few months. The meal obtained provides information about the sparseness of food, but the foreign armies had laid Germany in ruins. In cities all life was dead, whole rows of houses lay in ruins. 1664 were not yet rebuilt in Goettingen 290 houses. Berlin was one of only 300 people in 1650, 320 in Northeim you tore down houses to gain firing.
The kitchens at the courts were of a chef who was one of the court officials, conducted. The meals were prepared lusty and strong. With thin sauces and soups you were not down, but held on to meat and fish.
The food at the Hanoverian court created under the supervision of the royal "mouth cooking master" Nicolauß. For all there were anticipating a "wine" soup "or" bacon soup ", then fried" hare "roasted" bird ", small pies, wild boar ham , boiled young chickens, "Hirschwildtprädt", roast veal, boiled and braised beef, calf's head, roast pork, ox hooves, lignite or sour cabbage with "Dröge meat" and filled "Lambsbrüste". The fish factory offering consisted of: perch, cod, "awl", "Carpenter", fresh salmon, "Cabbelau", trout, flounder, herring and pike The fish were fresh and salted consumed, and the "gepöckelte" Herring was already at that time. widespread commercial products. For dessert we gave on Sunday night "Plum Book", fig and gooseberry pie. According to the information on "cakes", Chocolates, marzipan and pastries that were missing on any panel time, it is clear that in the 17th Century was also the cook at the same time pastry chef. For men, "Officirer" a bowl was often served with "Saladt".
With the completion of the line buckle by Duke George of Calenberg in December 1640 Calenberger era of rulers in Hanover started. Mostly they stayed on the first floor and the food related areas located on the eastern part of the castle castle kitchen. All meals were transported via the large double-sided spiral staircase. The kitchen facilities were also on the ground floor of the western wing cross next to the passage to the Inn 'older courtyard, which was therefore called "arc in front of the kitchen offices."
By Duke Johann Friedrich of Calenberg (reigned 1665-1679), the Leineschloß had won livability and artistic features. The oldest castle inventory, directory dates from August 1669 indicates the status of the former rooms of the castle to. Under the Hofpersonal the chefs are called, who stayed in the womb.
To the economic sphere included the following areas: German and French cuisine, baking chamber, kitchen bar, wine and beer cellar, brewhouse, silver and Zinnkammer, Ah and the House of Tailoring.
The inventory can be seen that the cutlery and crockery were more tin and less silver. The number of people who could stay in the castle, resulted from the 66 inventoried bedsteads. Strange chroma brought into the court life of not only the artists and the Italian lifestyle, no, it was mainly the French cuisine. In 1677 the castle and the castle kitchen have been completed, and it "a Broyhan was drunk!"
In Hanover, the cooks were on the dress code of 1651, which applied to the six items as "Garköche" were the craftsmen. Stand still in this fifth
Zimmeneute and Maurer, Weinschänker, bakers, blacksmiths, shoemakers and Knochenhauer formed the "large agencies" that were part of the Third Estate. Thus it is established that there was earlier in Hanover the profession "cooking". Certainly were the cooks, who, as the name implies, for a large company something "even" cooked., The "housekeeping women" when the men were less suitable for this hard work.
A really nice picture of the chefs of his time designing Marperger in his book "Complete Küch and cellar-Dictionary", Hamburg 1716. He calls the "Gnathones culinarii and beräucherte Kitchen Ratzen" ehrvolle and hardworking, absolute and sovereign lords and master of pots, pans, spoons and boilers. He refers to them as "Medici" and pharmacist because their food for healthy and sick are beneficial. On weekdays they go with all the fee in leather, dirty and according to the "best-fat" smelling clothes along and do their "Ampt" in all glory. away and you always can "stand all day with eating and drinking." Your time is divided by boiling, frying and baking, try, licking, foaming, fire stoking and when the time comes, with sideboards. And to hallow them also a Passion to: "... because sometimes they beisset of smoke in the eyes, sometimes they jump a spark in the face, sometimes they pour themselves a warm Brühlein in the shoe, which they learn at all like Tantzen". its place of business is the kitchen, which is "Raht-house, but also to speak to her heaven," not just her. They are philosophers and discuss "... the power of sweet, sour, hard, salted and ungesaltzenen, and lovely food." If they "have eaten and drunk enough", she sounded like singing. "Woe to them that the head rests on drinking, the stomach strotzet of eating, is nothing new, but as it were their daily bread."
A good personal chef for the rule was no less important than a competent physician, because that had to be based on knowledge, prepare a tasty, healthful food. He was often well rewarded. Dropped it due to poor performance in disgrace, threatened punishment or even dismissal, especially if he did not know to prevent fraud and "procrastination" in the kitchen. Therefore had a cook who could deal with the food in the kitchen and spices and preparation achieved a good taste, very popular way in 1604 describes the Electoral Mainz mouth cooking Marx Rumpolt in his "A new cookbook" the ideal chefs as follows:. He is "auffheben morning to all früste, brave, funny, hard-working, undaunted be fine clean, modest and clean possible. "to the buyer, he shall be subordinate and can guide him. He should write, read and count can be and always neatly dressed. There are also his" powerful little word conceded, "when the clothing Hofmeister and bad habits of his colleagues rants. He calls it "Hofaffen" and "fools" and complains about her half-covered "ARSS." He further writes, the head cook to be honest, sincere, loyal, healthy, clean and hardworking. Him is recommended that white towels, clean to wear "hammers" and dresses. The beard and hair are "Being abgekolbet" petite "abgekürzet" and. He will write, read and count can be and always neatly dressed. He is eavesdropping the taste of his master and the hour when it wants to eat, meet exactly. If he brings the food to his master, he is fine, have not black and white, shabby or dirty hands. And because the welfare of the dominions depends not a little of their cooks, so it is necessary that the chefs of youth, of fourteen and fifteen years in this art are taught. Next, a chef should not be an officer and servant therefore overflowed. His antecedents and his parents are exploring extensively. Finally Rumpolt speaks of the wish that the owner of the house to treat his household and kitchen master well, so that nothing else could it come to mind, as a cook good food for him.
These chefs were in general by royal decree on this title. For example, the chef Paul cube of His Royal Highness Frederick Leopold of Prussia in 1898 was appointed master chef.
Chefs have always been most widely traveled people who were in the world at home. Marx claimed to Rumpolt 1581 his profession in Italy, Russia, Prussia, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, Austria, to have learned in the Netherlands and "Teitschlandt". He was born in Hungary, had to leave with his parents because of "the Erbfeindt Türck (s)" his home.
For the modern period is February 1935 to name died with 89 years of Auguste Escoffier, who spent his working life in Germany, England, Switzerland and his native France.
Text from "100 years of history of the Hanover chefs of 1891 eV".
We are grateful to Hans Joachim Large Gorgemann, Hannover 1991